At this year's Micam show in February, a team from the Católica Porto Business School conducted a blind test to elucidate perceptions of footwear made in Portugal. Specifically, they sought to determine the effects of communication from Apiccaps, Portugal's footwear and leathergoods industry association; the influence on customers of knowing a shoe's country of origin; and the drivers of the sector. The sample comprised 80 randomly selected people of 26 nationalities, among them retailers, wholesalers, manufacturers, agents, designers, fashion students and a few end customers. They were asked to examine the shoes without knowing their origin and state what they would be willing to pay for them. When the shoes' Portuguese origin was revealed, the participants were on average willing to add a premium of 28 percent. Apiccaps attributes this happy result to decades of external promotion from footwear companies and to institutional investment in the sector's image. Apiccaps launched such a campaign in 2009, and within 10 years the sector saw its exports rise by about 50 percent, from €1,200 million to €1,900 million. Recent export trends have not been revealed.