Amnesty International has released a 160-page report titled Like We Were Enemies in a War: China’s Mass Internment, Torture and Persecution of Muslims in Xinjiang. Since 2017, Amnesty argues, Chinese authorities have been using “one of the world’s most sophisticated surveillance systems and a vast network of hundreds of grim ‘transformation-through-education” centers – actually, internment camps – throughout Xinjiang” to “root out the religious traditions, cultural practices and local languages of the region’s Muslim ethnic groups,” namely ethnic Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Hui, Kyrgyz, Uzbeks and Tajiks. “Torture and other ill-treatment are systematic in the camps, and every aspect of daily life is regimented in an effort to forcibly instill a secular, homogeneous Chinese nation and Communist party ideals.”

Agnès Callamard, the group’s secretary-general, calls it a “dystopian hellscape on a staggering scale” and believes that the Chinese Communist Party is carrying out “crimes against humanity and other serious human rights violations.”