The French designer Pierre Cardin died at the age of 98 at the American hospital in Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris.

He was born in Italy, but to escape fascism his family moved to France when he was two. Cardin “never forgot his origins while having an unconditional love for France,” his family wrote in a statement.

Cardin was one of the first designers to license, as early as the1960s, his brand. He expanded prolifically with brand extension, with over 800 licenses agreements, and estimated that his label was worth about €1 billion.

“It’s very difficult to have a name in fashion. So when you have one, you have to make the most of it,” he said in an interview with the news agency AFP. In May 2019, Cardin gathered 350 licensees at Palais Bulles, his holiday home in Théoule-sur-Mer, near Cannes, and held a fashion show for them.