The case against Christian Louboutin's European trademark brought by Roland has been dismissed by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). Roland, a manufacturer and distributor of electronic musical instruments, had originally opposed Louboutin's trademark on the basis of the red in its own trademark. The Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM), which registers the Community Trade Mark in the European Union (EU), rejected Roland's original opposition and its appeal, and now the EU's highest court has rejected it too. The recent judgment by the CJEU, on July 16, gave a final answer to the two appeals launched by Roland against the OHIM's decision to refuse its opposition to the trademark. Louboutin's trademark was the object of other legal disputes before. In 2012, the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Manhattan ruled that the French luxury shoe designer was entitled to protect its brand against red-soled shoes produced by Yves Saint Laurent, but it instructed the U.S. Patent and Trademark office to limit Louboutin's registration “to uses in which the red outsole contrasts with the color of the rest of the shoe.” In other words, the use of a red sole on a red shoe would not infringe on Louboutin's trademark.