The wages and labor conditions in the leather footwear manufacturing sector of the Tamil Nadu region, in India's South, are worse than those in the region's garment sector. According to a study funded by the Ethical Trading Initiative, entitled “Due diligence in Tamil Nadu leather footwear manufacture,” the sector suffers from “major” labor issues, such as health and safety risks, barriers to freedom of association, anti-union attitudes, low wages, excessive and involuntary overtime and irregular employment of factory workers, who are often employed on a daily or even piece-rate basis. The due diligence study was carried out by Homeworkers Worldwide and Cividep India.